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cuba history .org - History of Cuban Nation
 

Pre-Columbian Era

The perception that we have about pre-Columbian inhabitants from Cuba (named  as aboriginal, indigenous or incorrectly Indians) comes to us through the stories of the conquerors, called chroniclers of the Indies, for what is tinged by the europeanizing and Christian vision of the same ones. One of these chroniclers, Bartolomé de las Casas, distinguished three types of different cultures as for ethnic, linguistic, and of technological and social development features, which he called Guanahatebey, Siboney or Sibuney and Taína.

But in the last century the archaeological, ethnologic and morphological studies have allowed to investigate more in the life of these first inhabitants of the Island.

Aboriginal Remains Founded in Cuba

These ones arrived at the Island in migrations coming from continental America. The first route is presumes that it was through North America until the coast of gulf of Mexico. These first groups were paleolithic hunters of mongoloid origin.

Guanahatebeyes Aboriginal

The second migration, had dated approximately for 4500 years, came from Center and South America, they had a similar physiognomy similar to the first group. The third and quarter migration came fundamentally from Antilles around the 500 BCE.

A classification more abided to the evolution of these human groups it also establishes three groups: the age of the shell (corresponding to Guanahatebey), the age of the stone (corresponding to Siboney) and the age of the pottery (corresponding to Taína).

In common all these groups had a gentile matriarchal organization, with division of the work by sex and ages with a form of animist religion and cult to the ancestors.

The Guanahatebeyes, they settled in the south coast of the occident of the Island of Cuba and in the Isla de Pino (Island of Youth). In this region the mollusks, crustaceans and birds proliferated. Their main activities were the platform fishing and the coastal collect. They developed techniques to make instruments with the marine shell, therefore their classification. They lived to open sky and rarely they used the caves.

Siboneyes Aboriginal

The Siboneyes, also of the late mesolithic, they settled in the north coast of the occident and center of the Island. Although they constitute the first migration they were more advanced than the previous group. They developed the hunt and the fishing, without leave the collecting. They dominated the fire and they knew the technique for the carved of the flint stone. They lived in caves and ravines.

The Taínos. They were part of the family of the aruacos and they settled throughout the whole Island.

Tainos Aboriginal Comunity

They were farming, and with their main cultivation, the yucca, they manufactured the casabe, food that could not eat up only in the moment, but rather it could also conserve. They made objects and ceramic recipients and they got a varied instrumental of shell and refined stone. They lived in wooden houses and guano in diverse ways: from the cubic one classic (cabin), in form to circulate (caney) or have more than enough piles (barbacoa), always in a circular disposition around a space central (batey).